How the Pyramids Were Built (Pyramid Science Part 2!)


This episode is supported by Skillshare. Hey smart people, so a few weeks ago we made
a video about the pyramids, and how, while they are pretty heckin’ impressive, we can
trace the evolution of their construction and see the ancient Egyptians using trial
and error, and even making a few mistakes, which basically tells us they didn’t need
aliens to build them, they just needed science. You guys really liked that video, but a few
of you were… a little bothered that, despite the fact it was called “WHO built the pyramids?”
that I didn’t talk about HOW the pyramids were made. Soooo, let’s talk about it! [OPEN] The hundred-plus pyramids scattered around
Egypt were all built a bit differently, but we’re gonna focus on THE BIG ONE. Let’s review the stats! The Great Pyramid originally rose more than
146 meters tall and contained about 2.3 million stone blocks. But the start of any construction project
truly begins with the foundation, which is impressive in its own right. Its base is level to less than 2 cm, it’s
square to within 11 (cm), and its edges are aligned to the compass within 3/60ths of a
degree. This precision is pretty incredible since
compasses didn’t actually exist yet, and since forty-five hundred years ago the North
Star was in a completely different place. But finding North is actually pretty easy,
just watch where any star rises and sets during the night, and cut the angle in half. After that, squaring the sides just requires
measuring a right angle. Pythagoras and his equation came way later,
but ancient cultures like the Egyptians knew a 3-4-5 triangle made a 90˚ corner. They could even make a right angle with two
circles: the line connecting the intersection of the arcs is perpendicular to a line through
their centers. To level the base, some theories say the Egyptians
used water filled channels as natural levels, but this isn’t likely when you consider
how much water they’d have to carry in to keep it from evaporating. But if you can make a right angle, you can
make a level. Put that on some legs, and you can level over
long distances. When you think about it, a pyramid is just
a bunch of stacked squares, so if you can master this measurement, you’re most of
the way there. Now we just need some stones. The Great Pyramid’s core is made of more
than 2 million blocks of rough yellow limestone. This was quarried right next to the pyramids,
which is a big reason why they chose sites like Giza, where prehistoric oceans had deposited
this building material right under their feet. They would dig channels and pry these blocks
right from the Earth, and the size of the blocks was actually determined by the natural
thickness of these limestone layers. You can see evidence of these layers in The
Sphinx, which was actually dug out of the Earth, not built on top of it. The pyramids were originally covered in smooth
white limestone from quarries up the Nile, which was stolen to use in other buildings
thousands of years ago. We’ve found many chisels, drills, and saws
used at these quarries, and the only metal Egyptians had access to was copper. That’s a pretty soft metal, but when a slurry
of sand and powdered rock is poured in as an abrasive, even copper tools can cut limestone. To build the Great Pyramid in 23 years, an
Olympic swimming pool’s worth of stone had to be quarried every eight days. That’s a lot, but modern pyramid building
experiments using technology available to Ancient Egyptians calculated this amount of
stone could be cut and moved by a quarry team of 1200 to 1500 workers, which is totally
doable. Heavier stones, like the granite used in the
pyramid’s inner chambers, are much harder than limestone. They were literally chipped out by hand using
heavy dolerite hammer stones, which we’ve also found… a LOT of. It would have taken a full day’s pounding
to chip away a few centimeters, but then again they didn’t have Twitter to distract them. We’ve found Egyptian boats large enough
to have floated these stones down the Nile, but how were 2 million blocks actually moved
into place? It might be hard to believe, but wheels for
transportation are a surprisingly recent invention. Not because rolling a round thing is hard
to figure out but because inventing a workable axle is. The oldest known rolling wheels on Earth date
to before the Great Pyramid, but not in Egypt. Paintings tell us Egyptians used wooden sleds
to move large objects, but they still had to deal with friction. Burying wood rails horizontally will allow
a sled to slide more freely, but researchers at the University of Amsterdam showed in 2014
that sand has an interesting property, wetting it with the right amount of water makes it
remarkably slick. A team of ten workers can easily pull a one-ton
sled, but people always seem to forget that Egyptians had animals like donkeys and cattle
around to help too. Constructing ramps to deliver stone must have
been nearly as monumental as the pyramid itself. This is one place where there’s no records
of what they looked like, but researchers have examined lots of possibilities. An engineer named Craig Smith has done probably
the most detailed ramp analysis, calculating how many stones could be delivered with each
design, and he believes the Egyptians extended a big, wide ramp near the bottom where a pyramid
requires most of its stones, and spiral ramps near the top where fewer blocks are needed. Wooden levers, and round dolerite “ball
bearings” were used to guide stones into place, where they were carved to an exact
fit. Joints between some of the few remaining smooth
outer stones are so precise you can’t even slip a credit card between them, but digs
have shown they weren’t as careful with interior stones. It’s a popular idea that the pyramids were
built by slaves, but you shouldn’t believe everything you see in the movies. Egyptologists like Mark Lehner have uncovered
enormous cities built to feed, house, and equip thousands of skilled workers, with breweries,
bakeries, tool shops… signs that whole families lived nearby. Egyptian society at all levels dedicated themselves
to what they viewed as the kingdom’s proudest work. It’s actually pretty incredible that we
have as much evidence as we DO about how the pyramids were built, but that doesn’t mean
building them was easy. In fact it’s the opposite. But difficult doesn’t mean impossible. Stay curious.

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100 thoughts on “How the Pyramids Were Built (Pyramid Science Part 2!)

  1. You asked for it and here it is! How the pyramids were built, a follow-up to our video about who built the pyramids. Have a different idea about how they were built? Let us know in the comments… and bring your evidence!

  2. Quran 28:38

    And Pharaoh said, "O eminent ones, I have not known you to have a god other than me. Then ignite for me, O Haman, [a fire] upon the clay and make for me a tower that I may look at the God of Moses. And indeed, I do think he is among the liars."

  3. I live in a world populated by a lot of scientifically illiterate son-worshippers. As soon as comprehension requires the compounding of more than one simple concept, people would rather shake their heads and believe in magic. How sad.

  4. The Giants built the pyramids. You have been told !!!!! None speak of the giants. Killed and hidden from history. Remember the story of David and Gallieth.

  5. The pyramids rustle the jimmies of the white man. Whenever whites see impressive feats of architecture not built by them they say its aliens.

    Pyramids in Egypt and south America? Aliens
    Easter islands heads? Aliens
    Stone fortress in Peru? Aliens
    Nazca lines ? Aliens
    Stonehedge? Aliens
    Great Zimbabwe? Aliens
    Underground city in Turkey? Aliens
    Cool temple in Lebanon? Aliens

  6. Any one with have a brain knows theres more to it then a place to Barry a damn king way to complex an laid out perfect to be a power plant just saying

  7. It is difficult to ignore the significance of the year 2370 BCE. Technology was lost and the human race learned new ways to live and build. Before the Flood you had the giants nephilim super strong. They POSSIBLY were able to carry Stonehenge size stones and place them by choice while humans could not.
    Aliens built the pyramids? Yes, if you call rebelious angels aliens and their giant children (nephilim). The possibilities fit.

    Copper metal alloy statue (possibly what a nephilim looked like ) dated before great flood at MET museum is an example of technology that disapeard after the great flood.

    Funny how he says dont believe what you see in movies and insinuate Bible history is not credible.

  8. I know an easier way to know how they built it. Create a giant telescope, wrap space and sent it a few million light years away. Then point to the earth ta-da!

  9. The Diary of Merer seems to describe that 200 2-3 ton stone blocks were moved per month to build the GP (which is estimated to hold c.2,300,000 mostly 2-3 ton stones). That means it took about 958.333 years to build, not even counting the years of planning. Wow, isn't that amazing ?!?!

  10. The theory of an aqueduct chamber is more realistic.. but idk how much evidence there is to support it. I just saw a good video on it though.

  11. If finding North is so easy, why were we able to achieve a greater precisioin in constructing north-oriented structures only in 20th century? And please stop delivering this BS about how perfectly flat and smooth granite blocks can be made by merely smashing round stones on them… Smash your head with that stone isntead.

  12. So how were the pyramids built ? I'm still none the wiser. This video should have taken literally 15 seconds but you babbled on for 7 mins without an actual inference.

  13. They flooded the Nile, that's how they measured the base and that's how they moved the granite stones. Evidence? The same as yours 😂

  14. This is totally true. This is how the pyramids were built. He missed on the point that the stones were 900 KM away from Giza and he said that Giza was chosen due to the availability of the raw material, not sure why. But yes, all this was done to satisfy a person's ego. This person had a dream for after he dies. And for that, he wasted his life building this pyramid.

    Now to the real thing. All the equipment found on the site is of the ancient Egyptians who mutilated the pyramids to satisfy 1 man's ego. Sounds better and practical for that time, right?

    Do these people have another video explaining the erosion on the sphinx?
    This video makes me feel like I am a flat earther. If you feel the same, don't. The video is a bunch of lies probably made by the historians as they don't have the real answers.

  15. This is garbage. Not true. Out dated information that should not be noted as fact to day. We still cannot rebuild the pyramids to this day.

  16. The fallen one's made them before the flood. How stupid can you be ?? It's a power plant don't you see the drawings on the walls. They are holding giant light bulbs.

  17. i have a problem with just about every statement you made in this video.
    1. It takes 24 hours to cut a mere 2 inches in to limestone with a sand abrasive and bronze saw
    2. The pyramids can be dated back to before the dynastic Egyptians
    3. each pice of stone is approximately 2.5 tons, move that out of a quarry up a 455' ramp made out of wood with friction 2.3 million times in just 20 years it would take 22 days to just COUNT to 2 million
    you didn't mention the cylinder saw cuts and pits found all throughout the giza plateau that have a corkscrew effect digging into one of the hardest stones in the world at a rate our best diamond bit drills cant keep up with moving up to an inch down in one full repetition
    the scientific community needs to stop sticking to the narrative AND ASK YOUR OWN QUESTIONS DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH because ive learned not to trust the textbooks written and sold by people that are afraid to be wrong pushing a inaccurate explanation that does not line up for one of the biggest mysterys on earth

    and to this guy; you didnt even kow the history of zahi hawass. he stole artifacts from the valley of kings and is refusing to let any excavations take place he even was fired i hope you take my comment seriously ive been studying this for years and its obvious things dont add up

  18. Who seriously thinks all those stones were pushed,lifted or dragged into place?
    My favourite theory is most of them were
    poured and moulded to harden then set into place. Havent some of these blocks been broken open and tested? Wasnt animal hair found?

  19. Your telling me that the ancient Egyptans, quarried, shaped, moved, lifted, and placed in a meticulous manner over 2,000,000,000 multiple ton stone block in less than 3 minutes, in 23 year's,j and don't forget that the blocks we're not all the same in their structural make-up that made much it more problematic, and that was by design. I find that extremely difficult to believe, along with Darwinism.😏 90% of everything that lives today has gone extinct, but Darwinism sayes we came from monkey's, or great ape's if you wil,l and yet they are still around🤔

  20. imagine if these idiots had put all that material and work into building infrastructure instead of useless vanity projects , they would have had the greatest society the world has ever seen . CRETINS .

  21. if being "smart" is believing the text book/authority , then we would still think the sun goes round the earth !
    see the flaw in your logic now ? this really is the problem with the education system , obedience and learning parrot fashion are rewarded above all else . so with that logic a computer is the smartest "person" on the planet . DO YOU SEE THE FLAW IN YOUR LOGIC YET ? COME ON IT'S NOT THAT HARD .

  22. The Egyptians were master masons. the pyramids were made of concrete, those blocks he's talking about are made up of aggregate geo-polymerization , they also invented plywood (forms) see Dr. David Davidovits

  23. Geopolymer- witch is the making of man made stone…that gives the appearance of natural stone…don’t take my word for it…research the “Geopolymer Institute of Frans”…

  24. This isn’t science! This is speculation and opinion. Whenever something that contradicts the mainstream view is found, It’s cast aside as conspiracy theory.

  25. Whoever built the great pyramid knew the map of the globe, because its location is at the center of land mass. More likely acoustic levitation was the means of moving the blocks that weren't cast.

  26. You talk too fast…what’s your hurry? This is the poorest how were the pyramids built video I’ve ever seen. Really bad.

  27. I would like to see this channel go into more detail about the granite working capabilities of ancient Egypt. This video skimmed over the topic.
    I understand that the more impressive looking features of ancient Egyptian construction to most people are the pyramids, but stacking sandstone blocks is really nothing compared to the ultra-precise granite work acheived, especial in old kingdom sites.
    The perfection of hard stone working we see in places like the serapeum of sacarra are simply not explainable by smashing a hard hand stone into granite.
    Please consider an episode specifically talking about this. There's no solid theory yet, but an explanation of the theories and physics behind this would be very interesting.

  28. Dude in this video is clearly delusional, Egyptians could make pyramids, but didn't know what the wheel is, yeah right!

  29. I have been there. I have seen the pyramids in person. I have entered the big one and visited the king's chamber. In no way ramps are a good explanation for piling up stones that big. So, what a stupid explanation! this is the kind of explanation that explains nothing. the idea that they used ramps to pull up stones that weighted 10 tons – in some cases – is just bad science. What were the ramps made of? Sand? They would collapse in a second, don't you see that? Science better admit they have no clue at all on how they were built than coming up with such a stupid idea.

  30. A lot of assumptions but no proof. Understandable as we're dealing with issues that are at least 3000 years old. However, if the budget is there, put the hypothesis to the test. Build a pyramid, a small one, and lets see it in action. Rules are that you can't use anything that wasn't available 3000 odd years ago. So Aliens are in and construction machinery is out.

  31. You act like this is what actually happened. An amateur theory is what it is. I have a theory that I think is what happened. but it’d be to much for y’all’s little heads to handle. And you don’t touch on how freakishly big those stones are. We don’t have equipment today that can move those

  32. Pyramid is easy construction, just simple geometric design , sq blocks by blocks. The rooms inside may be a challenge but not impossible. Men women children soldiers all together, built it daily , they used god and Paraoh fear to make them work harder without using weapons.

  33. This should be called It's not good or OK to be an Idiot. "Finding North wasn't hard? Carving into bedrock, Leveling and squaring a foundation that was 13 acres. Then piling up 2 and a half million quarried stone all weighing around 2 ton each. And building Rooms and Tunnels all to perfect plumb and lined inside that pile of rocks. Maintain a 51 degree slope on each side of a forty story high pile of rocks. Then when it all peaked to a perfect Pyramid at top. They all got drunk and went back to being ignorant Cavemen Yea It was easy you Moron. My evidence is forty years of building structures. If you think that 1500 men could do this in a hundred years
    you would still be out of your mind. Your pencil pushing exports have that cut down to a mere 20 years. Do you know what it takes just to try and run a 1500 man operation ? Then when they showed up you gave them round rocks and told them to get to work? That same day your work force would go from 1500 to zero in the first 15 minutes

  34. great video of how PYRAMID might have been made

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTgxGJfXRQ0&list=PLIr4fTBr_ahdEK-RGp3z6OzVOCMIZDpMX&index=2&t=1874s

  35. Isaiah 19:19
    [19]In that day shall there be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the LORD.
    Sa araw na yaon ay magkakaroon ng isang dambana sa Panginoon sa gitna ng lupain ng Egipto, at isang haligi sa hangganan niyaon sa Panginoon.

  36. I swear people who actually think aliens built the pyramids or something dumb like that are just so unbelievably stupid.Its insulting that my ancestors built these amazing structures with hard work and amazing precision but people think some people from space built it and not us.Egypt never gets praised for anything and no one talks about it.everyone is always talking about America and stuff but when it finally comes to my country people say it's impossible we made something.

  37. Mark out the square shape on the ground level then place all the corners with the stone blocks up to 2 blocks in height on each 4 corners Then work inwards towards the middle of each flat side leving a gap wide enough about 4 stone blocks in width creating a step system to work upwards to pull up stones and move left/right towards each corner

  38. The ancient Egyptians did not build the pyramids of Giza! – I can't abide you cheeseballs who still believe they did!

  39. so the ancients used primitive tools and drug stones to build a precise beautiful pyramid with geometric numbers aligned to the stars. ummmm ok. I gave the alien theory a shot. I dont believe it. khufu pyramid is an ancient secret we will never have the answer to. YouTube the geometry of it. it's unbelievable

  40. I believe they used the Nile. they floated the stones to the site. they couldn't have been carved. they were geopolymer limestone. to build something so mathematically correct and to the precision in tune with the earth properties and you are telling me they dragged all of it. they could have drawn those to throw us off.

  41. Giants helped Also.All of those statues & carvings from 1000s of years ago was just theyr days billboards….ppl didnt travel back then,to see what, more hills,deserts or deadly terrain? so permanent billboards were the norm.THATS ALL.

  42. What a joke! Please don't act like you know for a fact how it was done. Smart people know when to admit they don't know certain things

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